This book presents an overview of the evolution and opportunities associated with traditional as well as upcoming fields in the areas of materials, metallurgy, and manufacturing. There are a lot of interesting fields at this trijunction, such as alloy design, bio-materials, composites, high entropy alloys, sensors, electronic materials, and materials degradation. The progress in these fields is further fuelled by the advances in the analysis and fabrication techniques such as correlative microscopy, additive manufacturing, and surface engineering. This book discusses the above topics/fields covering advanced analysis techniques, fabrication methods, and various technological applications. Every chapter walks through the basics of the respective field and comprehensively discusses the current developments and future avenues, to arrive at a point where the reader acquires an overall view of the field. Special emphasis is given to the scientific fundamentals and application potential, in a way that readers of all backgrounds can get benefited. The chapters connect the current developments with the future avenues, to help the researchers foresee the future technologies, in their respective fields. This text will appeal to experienced researchers, practitioners, and students alike.