This book highlights the basic theories and key technologies of error compensation for industrial robots. The chapters are arranged in the order of actual applications: establishing the robot kinematic models, conducting error analysis, conducting kinematic and non-kinematic calibrations, and planning optimal sampling points. To help readers effectively apply the technologies, the book elaborates the experiments and applications in robotic drilling and milling, which further verifies the effectiveness of the technologies. This book presents the authors’ research achievements in the past decade in improving robot accuracy. It is straightforwardly applicable for technical personnel in the aviation field, and provides valuable reference for researchers and engineers in various robotic applications.